Clark University

ECONOMIC GEOGRAPHY ISSUE: Vol. 90 No. 4 October 2014

 

 

 

Design of new Economic Geography JournalEconomic Geography is an internationally peer-reviewed journal, committed to publishing cutting-edge research that makes theoretical advances to the discipline. Our long-standing specialization is to publish the best theoretically-based empirical articles that deepen the understanding of significant economic geography issues around the world. Owned by Clark University since 1925, Economic Geography actively supports scholarly activities of economic geographers. Economic Geography is published quarterly in January, April, July, and October.

CONTENTS

 

 

Editorial

Journal Articl

 

On the Relationship between Innovation and Wage Inequality: New Evidence from Canadian Cities

Sébastien Breau, Dieter F. Kogler and Kenyon C. Bolton, Pages 351–373
Abstract | Complete Article | Enhanced Article

 

Juggling with Proximity and Distance: Collaborative Innovation Projects in the Danish Cleantech Industry

Teis Hansen, Pages 375–402
Abstract |Complete Article | Enhanced Article

 

Regional Branching Reconsidered: Emergence of the Fuel Cell Industry in European Regions

Anne Nygaard Tanner, Pages 403–427
Abstract | Complete Article | Enhanced Article

 

Competition, Law, and the Power of (Imagined) Geography: Market Definition and the Emergence of Too-Big-to-Fail Banking in the United States

Brett Christophers, Pages 429–450
Abstract | Complete Article | Enhanced Article

 

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BOOK REVIE

 

Mercantilism Reimagined: Political Economy in Early Modern Britain and Its Empire, edited by Philip J. Stern and Carl Wennerlind

Robert J. Mayhew, pages 451–452
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Development, Security, and Aid: Geopolitics and Geoeconomics at the U.S. Agency for International Development, by Jamey Essex

Edward R. Carr, pages 453–455
Read Book Review | Enhanced Article

 

Cities, State and Globalization: City-Regional Governance in Europe and North America, by Tassilo Herrschel

Michael R. Glass, pages 457–458
Read Book Review | Enhanced Article

 

Sovereign Wealth Funds: Legitimacy, Governance, and Global Power, by Gordon L. Clark, Adam D. Dixon and Ashby H. B. Monk

Daniel Haberly, pages 459–461
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ABSTRACTS

On the Relationship between Innovation and Wage Inequality: New Evidence from Canadian Cities by Sébastien Breau, Dieter F. Kogler and Kenyon C. Bolton

Abstract: In this article, we examine the link between innovation and earnings inequality across Canadian cities over the 1996–2006 period. We do so using a novel data set that combines information from the Canadian long-form census and the United States Patent and Trademark Office. The analysis reveals that there is a positive relationship between innovation and inequality: cities with higher levels of innovation have more unequal distributions of earnings. Other factors influencing differences in inequality include city size, manufacturing and government employment, the percentage of visible minority in an urban population, and educational inequality. These results are robust to the use of different measures of inequality, innovation, alternative specifications, and instrumental variables estimations. Questions are thus raised about how the benefits of innovation are distributed in society and the long-term sustainability of such trends.

Key words: earnings inequality, innovation, micro-data, cities, Canada

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Juggling with Proximity and Distance: Collaborative Innovation Projects in the Danish Cleantech Industry by Teis Hansen

Abstract: Studies increasingly apply a multidimensional proximity framework in the analysis of collaborations between actors. This article explores the influence of collaboration motives on the desired proximity characteristics of partnerships in innovation projects based on 50 interviews with representatives from Danish cleantech firms. How search criteria along proximity dimensions differ depends on the purposes of the collaborations. In this way, the analysis distinguishes between the types of collaboration, where geographical proximity is considered highly important and those where geographically distant partners are preferred. Geographical proximity plays an important role in partnerships motivated by interaction around actual product development and knowledge creation, while long-distance relationships appear to be important for partnerships motivated by market access and cost considerations. The insight that the desired proximity characteristics of partnerships are indeed contingent on the motive for collaborating highlights how the proximity framework can be applied in the analysis of firm decision making.

Key words: proximity, distance, collaboration motives, innovation projects, cleantech

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Regional Branching Reconsidered: Emergence of the Fuel Cell Industry in European Regions by Anne Nygaard Tanner

Abstract: The literature on economic geography suffers from a lack of attention to the emergence of new industries. Recent literature on “regional branching” proposes that new industries emerge in regions where preexisting economic activities are technologically related to the emerging industry. This article provides a more grounded basis for the emerging literature on regional branching by confronting the regional branching thesis with the realities of an emerging industry, namely, the fuel cell industry. The analysis is based on patent data and qualitative interviews conducted in a selection of European NUTS2 (nomenclature of territorial units for statistics) regions. The findings can be summarized as follows. First, the analysis reveals that in the case of the emerging fuel cell industry, regional diversification is dominated by firm diversification, which complements previous studies' findings that entrepreneurial spin-offs dominate regional diversification. Second, the study corroborates the assumption that the process of regional branching relies on knowledge generated by nonindustrial actors such as universities and research institutes. Third, the findings suggest that care should be taken in ascribing the underlying logic of regional branching to the principle of technological relatedness alone. The article shows how some regional diversification processes occur in regions where preexisting economic activities are not technologically related to the emerging industry, for instance, when user industries apply new technologies to their product portfolio. The importance of further investigating and disentangling different dimensions of relatedness and their impact on regional branching is stressed.

Key words: regional branching, emerging industry, diversification, technological relatedness, fuel cells



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Competition, Law, and the Power of (Imagined) Geography: Market Definition and the Emergence of Too-Big-to-Fail Banking in the United States, by Brett Christophers

Abstract: This article explores the role of antitrust (or competition) law in the recent historical evolution of the U.S. commercial banking sector. A core component of antitrust law is the calculative practice of market definition, which involves identifying not only the product or service attributes of a market but also, pointedly, its geographic extent. Geographic market definition—and the geographic knowledges it furnishes—is the focus of the article. It argues that these legal market maps (“the law's markets,” that is to say) materially shape on-the-ground market and competitive realities. The article develops this argument through a study of the recent history of U.S. antitrust theory and practice in regard to commercial banking. It claims that the particular nature of the geographic models created through this practice is pivotal to explaining the history of evolution of that sector in the final decades of the twentieth century—and most especially, large-scale industry consolidation at the national scale. In the process, the article aims to contribute not only to financial geography but also to three relatively-underdeveloped economic-geographic literatures: on the implication of geographic knowledges in political-economic change; on the geographies of markets; and on the role of the law in economic-geographic transformation.



Key words: Antitrust (competition) law, U.S., too-big-to-fail banks, markets, geographic knowledges, calculative practices


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UPCOMING ARTICLES

January 2015

Roepke Lecture in Economic Geography---The Lives of Others: Body Work, The Production of Difference and Labour Geographies
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Geographic Effects on Intergenerational Income Mobility
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