In one section some background in trigonometry is needed as indicated with the symbol. That section goes further into complex numbers and is optional in an introduction.
Special symbols used here. Some old web browsers do not display mathematical symbols. The following table shows the mathematical symbols used here. If there are any entries in the first column that appear blank or appear as question marks, then your web browser will not display those symbols, and you will need to use a different web browser to see all the symbols.
|||minus sign||x y|
|±||plus or minus sign||x ± y|
|√||square root sign||√2|
|3√||cube root sign||3√5|
|≠||not equal to||x ≠ y|
|≤||less than or equal to||x ≤ y|
|≥||greater than or equal to||x ≥ y|
David E. Joyce
Department of Mathematics and Computer Science
Worcester, MA 01610
These pages are located at http://www.clarku.edu/~djoyce/complex/