Joseph deRivera, Ph.D
Research: works on emotional experience
1. The structure and dynamics of emotion [In R. Hogan and W. Jones (Eds.), Perspectives in Personality: Vol. 3A. Self and emotion. London: Jessica Kingsly Press, 1991].
This is the best review of the structural theory. It describes 3 aspects of the theory: 1) That each emotion has a dynamic structure; 2) that these emotions may be inter-related by a matrix that describes the different possible transformations of Interpersonal relationships; and 3) that we continually choose what emotion we experience and these choices affect our development as human beings.

2. A Structural Theory of the Emotions. [Psychological Issues Monograph 40. New York: International Universities Press, 1977].
This is the basic theoretical monograph. The first chapter reviews theories of emotion. The second presents the inter-personal matrix that suggests how the emotions are related to each other. The third asserts that each individual emotion has a dynamic structure and describes the structure of anger. The fourth shows that persons can relate most emotion names to positions on the matrix.

A. The Matrix of Emotions

1. The structure of emotional relationships.  [In P. Shaver (Ed.), Review of Personality and Social Psychology, Vol. 5: Special issue on emotions, relationships and health. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, 1984]. PDF
This chapter extends the theory inter-personal matrix idea presented in Chapter 2 of STE, stressing the developmental implications of the matrix.

2. Emotions as social relationships. [de Rivera, J.H. & Grinkis, C., Motivation and Emotion, 10, 351-369, 1986]. PDF
This article describes a study using multi-dimensional scaling to support the proposed matrix of emotions as inter-personal relationships.

B. The Dynamic Structure of Emotions

1. Conceptual Encounter: A method for the exploration of human experience. [Lanham, MD: University Press of America, 1981]. PDF
The first chapter describes the method of arriving at structures for individual emotion. Subsequent chapters describe structures for anger, anxiety and panic, joy, elation and gladness, distance, and laughter. The second chapter presents the structure for anger and some related emotions. PDF

2. Emotional experience and qualitative methodology. [American Behavioral Scientist, 27, 739-756, 1984].
This issue delineates structures for shame and guilt, exaltation, closeness, aloneness, experiences of the environment, nuclear weapons, being criminally victimized, and being depressed.

3. Distinguishing elation, gladness, and joy. [deRivera, J.H., Possell, L., Verette, J.A. and Wiener, B. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 57, 1015-1023, 1989].
This is the first "objective" proof that differences in dynamic structures can be described for closely related emotions.

4. Lindsay-Hartz, J., de Rivera, J.H. & Mascolo. (1995). Differentiating guilt and shame and their effects on motivation. In Eds. (J. Tangney & K.W. Fischer) Self-Conscious Emotions: The Psychology of Shame, Guilt, Embarrassment, and Pride. New York: Guilford. PDF
This study validates conceptual-encounter distinctions between shame and guilt by using blind matches, and gives implications for motivation.

5. Comparing experiences across cultures: Shame and guilt in America and Japan. [Hiroshima Forum for Psychology, 14, 1989].
This article uses the structural approach to compare experiences in different cultures.

6. Biological necessity, emotions transformation, and personal value. [In S. Koch & D.E. Leary (Eds.), A Century of Psychology as a Science. New York: McGraw-Hill, 1985, 1999]. PDF
This chapter contains the best account of the idea of how emotions transform our way of being.

7. Some emotional dynamics underlying the genesis of false memory syndrome [(pp. 417-426) In W.F. Flack & J.D. Laird (Eds.) Emotions in Psychopathology: Theory and Research, New York: Oxford University Press, 1998].
Argues that emotional transformations may be involved in some cases of false memory syndrome.

C. Choice and Development

1. Development and the full range of emotional experience. [In C. Malatesta and C. Izard (Eds.), Emotion in Adult Development. Beverly Hills, CA: Sage, 1984].
This is a good introduction to the idea of how choice of emotion may effect development.

2. Choice of emotion and ideal development. [In L. Cirillo, B. Kaplan, and S. Wapner (Eds.), Emotion and Ideal Human Development, Hillsdale, NJ: Erlbaum, 1989]. PDF
This is the best account of the relationship between emotion and value and expands in the idea that choice of emotion facilitates or retards development.

3. Love, fear and justice: Transforming selves for the new world. [Social Justice Research, 3, 387-426, 1989]. PDF
This article is a new theoretical development. It begins to relate emotions to broader social issues. (This and the references below are related to peace psychology and also listed under that heading.)

4. Emotional Climate: Social structure and emotional dynamics. [In K.T. Strongman (Ed.), International Review of Studies of Emotion. Vol. 2, New York: Wiley, 1992].
This chapter deals with the structure and emotional relations in groups, particularly in the nation-state.

5. The emotional motivation of righteous behavior. (with Gerstman & Maisels) [Social Justice Research, 7, 91-106, 1994].
Presents data showing that anger rather than sympathy or guilt leads to action for social justice.

6. Acting righteously: the influence of attitude, moral responsibility, and emotional involvement. (with Gerstman & Maisels) [In M. Ross. And D.T. Miller (Eds.) The justice motive in social life. NY: Cambridge University Press, 2002].   PDF
Shows that neither attitude nor moral responsibility leads to moral action without emotional involvement.

7. The role of suffering in theories of emotion. Paper presented at the XI Conference of the International Society for Research on Emotion, August 2000, Quebec, Canada.  PDF
This paper places emotional experience in the broader context of our life as human beings.

8. de Rivera, J. (2006) Conceptual Encounter: The Experience of Anger. In C.T Fischer (Ed.) Qualitative Research methods for Psychologists. San Diego: Elsevier. (Pages 213-245).  PDF

           This chapter describes the method of conceptual encounter, applies it to the experience

           of anger and then critiques the conceptualization from the perspective that it is a narrative                  paradigm that Western cultures use to socialize aggressive impulses. “Anger” is compared

           with experiences in other cultures.


D. Collective Emotional Experience

1.  The objective-behavioral environment of Isidor Chein: In memory of a humanistic scientist. [Environment and Behavior, 18(1), 95-108, 1986]  PDF

For additional publications, please see "Peace Psychology," section B. Collective Emotions