Gustaf H. Carlson School of Chemistry

Frederick Greenaway

Frederick T. Greenaway, Ph.D.

Professor, Carlson School of Chemistry & Biochemistry
Adjunct Professor, Department of Biology
Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Program
Department of Biology
Clark University
Worcester, MA 01610-1477

Office: S102, Sackler Sciences Center
Phone: 508-793-7182

Curriculum Vitae


B.S. Chemistry, Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand, 1969
Ph.D. Chemistry, Canterbury, Christchurch, New Zealand,1973
Postdoctoral Fellow, Michigan State University, E. Lansing, MI 1973-1974
Syracuse University, Syracuse, NY, 1974-1980
Bioinorganic Chemistry, Enzymology

Current Research and Teaching

Our research group's interests are in studying metal-containing enzymes and bioinorganic model systems of the active sites of these enzymes, together with structural studies of metal binding to ligands of biological and environmental interest. Emphasis is placed on spectroscopic, particularly magnetic resonance (NMR and EPR), and mass spectroscopic (LC/MS/MS) techniques.

Currently, the primary topics of interest are studies of the copper- and quinone-containing amine oxidases, which include diamine oxidase, benzylamine oxidase, and lysyl oxidase. These enzymes are important in the metabolic regulation of amines, oxidizing them to aldehydes. In the case of lysyl oxidase, this is the first step in the cross-linking of collagen and elastin, and leads to their great strength. The research is focused on understanding the details of the structure and mechanisms of action of these enzymes, with special emphasis on the role of the copper. The enzymes are isolated in our laboratory, and characterized spectroscopically and by activity measurements. Experiments include (a) EPR investigation of the copper and free radical species generated in the reaction with amine substrates, (b) NMR studies of the protein itself and of products of reactions, (c) absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy of the copper and quinone cofactors as the reactions proceed, (d) determination of the cystine crosslinks,(e) development of selective inhibitors, (f) using molecular biology techniques to produce site-directed mutants to characterize structurally important residues, and (g) computer modeling of the tertiary structure of the enzyme and its interactions with substrates and inhibitors.

Selected Publications

"ACTB in Cancer,” C. Guo, S. Liu, J. Wang, M.-Z. Sun, F.T. Greenaway, Clin. Chim. Acta, 417, 39-44 (2013).

"Influence of Cu(II) chelate of salicylidene-DL-β-alanine on the immune system of white mice with hypodermic tumour," H.W. Gasparyan, S.H. Ghazaryan, E.R. Arakelova, G.S. Mkrtchyan, A.E. Pogosyan, K.P. Grigoryan, F.T. Greenaway, Blood 1, 37-40 (2011).

"Identification of the disulfide bonds of lysyl oxidate," X. Chen, F.T. Greenaway, J. Neural Transmission, 118, 1111-1114 (2011).

"Identification of the copper-binding ligands of lysyl oxidate," K.M. Lopez, F.T. Greenaway, J. Neural Transmission, 118, 1101-1109 (2011).

"Purification of high yields of catalytically active lysyl oxidase directly from E. coli cell culture," S.E. Herwald, F.T. Greenaway, and K.M. Lopez, Prot. Expr. Purif. 74, 116-21 (2010).

"A C-terminal hydrophobic, solvent-protected core and a flexible N-terminus are potentially required for human papillomavirus 18 E7 protein functionality." S. Liu, Y. Tian, F.T. Greenaway, M.-Z. Sun, Biochimie 92, 901-8 (2010).

"Biochemical, functional and structural characterization of Akbu-LAAO: A novel snake venom L-amino acid oxidase from Agkistrodon blomhoffii ussurensis," M.-Z. Sun, C. Guo, Y Tian, D. Chen, F.T. Greenaway, S. Liu, Biochimie 92, 343-349 (2010).

"Modeling CU(II) binding to peptides using the Extensible Systematic Force Field, " F. Ryvkin, F.T. Greenaway, Bioinorg. Chem. Appl. 2010:724210 (2010).

"Proteomics analysis of two mice hepatocarcinoma ascites syngeneic cell lines with high and low lymph node metastasis rates provide potential protein markers for tumor malignancy attributes to lymphatic metastasis," M.-Z., S. Liu, J. Tang, Z. Wang, X. Gong, C. Sun, F.T. Greenaway. Proteomics, 9, 3285-302 (2009).

"A novel phospholipase A2 from Agkistrodon blomhoffii ussurensis venom: Purification, proteomeic, functional and structural characterization," M.-Z. Sun, S. Liu, F. Yang, F.T. Greenaway, Y. Xu, Biochimie, 91, 558-567 (2009).

"Nanospray liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry, two-dimensional florescence in gel electrophoresis an gene microarray identification of lymphatic metastasis-associated markers in mouse hepatocarcinoma cell lines," S. Liu, M.-Z. Sun, J.W. Tang, Z. Wang, C. Sun, F.T. Greenaway, Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom. 22, 3172-3178 (2008).

"A novel serine protease from the snake venom of Agkistrodon blomhoffii ussurensis." S. Liu, M.-Z. Sun, C. Sun, B. Zhao, F.T. Greenaway, and Q. Zheng, Toxicon 52, 760-768 (2008).

"A Novel Plasminogen Activator from Agkistrodon blomhoffii Ussurensis Venon (ABUSVPA): Purification and Characterization." S. Liu, M.Z. Sun, F.T. Greenaway, Biochem. Biophys. Research Commun. 348, 1279-1287 (2006).

"Characterization of a Fibrinolytic Enzyme (Usserenase) from Agkistrodon blomhoffi Ussurensis Snake Venom: Insights into the Effects of Ca2+ on Function and Structure.: M.Z. Sun, S. Liu, F.T. Greenaway, Biochim. Biophys. Acta 1764, 1340-1348 (2006).

"Synthesis, characterization and measurement of antioxidant reactivity of salicylidene-D,L-tyrosine ethyl ester and copper(II)(salicylidene-D,L-tyrosine ethyl ester)2 in a linoleic acid peroxidation reaction system." S.H. Minasyan, S.H. Ghazaryan, V.J. Tonoyan, S.A. Bajinyan, J.R.J. Sorenson, F.T. Greenaway, Synth. React. Inorg., Metal-Org., Nano-Metal Chem. 36, 425-434 (2006).

"Low-temperature (180K) crystal structures of tetrakis-μ-(niflumato)di(aqua)dicopper(II) N,N-dimethylformamide and N,N-dimethylacetamide solvates, their EPR properties, and anticonvulsant activities of these and other ternary binuclear copper(II)niflumate complexes." B. Viossat, A. Tomas, F. T. Greenaway, J. J. Girerd, G. Morgant, J. C. Daran, D. Nguyen-Huy , J. R. J Sorenson, J. Inorg Biochem. 99, 355-367 (2005).

"Crystal structure of bis(aspirinato)diaquacadmium(II): An isotypic mononuclear complex resembling bis(aspirinato)diaquazinc(II)," B. Viossat, Nguyen Huy Dung, G. Morgant, F.T. Greenaway, J.R.J. Sorenson, Z. Kristallographie 219, 475-476 (2004).

"Novel antioxidants and radioprotectors on the basis of aminoacids, peptides and cations necessary for cell live vitality." S.H. Ghazaryan, K.P. Grigoryan, A.I. Gevondyan, Y.V. Kobalyan, S.A. Bajinyan, S.H. Minasyan, M.G. Malakyan, A.S. Pogosyan, G.G. Gasparyan, G.M. Simonyan, F.T. Greenaway, J.R.J. Sorenson, "Collection of Works On the Bonding Between Structure and Biological Activity of Chemical Compounds," publ. National Academy of Sciences of Armenia Institute of Fine Organic Chemistry, pp. 153-165 (2004).

"Anti-oxidant and pro-oxidant activities of copper(II), manganese(II) and iron(III) 3,5-di-i-propylsalicylate chelates during peroxidation of alkylbenzenes," L. A. Tevadyan, G. Z. Sedrakyan, S. H. Minasyan, F. T. Greenaway, J. R. J. Sorenson, Transition Metal Chem. 29, 684-696 (2004).

"A peptide model of the copper-binding region of lysyl oxidase." F. Ryvkin, F.T. Greenaway, J. Inorg. Biochem. 98, 1427-1435 (2004).

"Synthesis, crystal structures, and anticonvulsant activities of ternary [ZnII(3,5-diisopropylsalicylate)2], [ZnII(salicylate)2] and [ZnII(aspirinate)2] complexes." P. Lemoine, B. Viossat, Nguyen Huy Dung, A. Tomas, G. Morgant, F.T. Greenaway, J.R.J. Sorenson, J. Inorg. Biochem. 98, 1734-1749 (2004).

"Low-temperature (180 K) crystal structure, electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopy, and propitious anticonvulsant activities of Cu(II) 2(aspirinate)4(DMF)2 and other Cu(II)2(aspirinate)4 chelates." B. Viossat, J-C. Daran, G. Savouret, G. Morgant, F. T. Greenaway, D. Nguyen-Huy, Van Anh Pham-Tran, J. R. J. Sorenson. J. Inorg. Biochem. 96, 375-385 (2003).

"Synthesis, crystal structure and anticonvulsant properties of binuclear and mononuclear 1,10-phenanthroline and salicylate ternary copper(II) complexes," P. Lemoine, B. Viossat, G. Morgant, F. T. Greenaway, J. R. J. Sorenson, A. Tomas, N.-H. Dung, J. Inorg. Biochem. 89, 18-28 (2002).

"Anti-tert-Butylperoxide Radical reactivities of Copper(II), Manganese(II), and Iron(III) 3,5-Diisopropylsalicylate Chelates," L. A. Tevadyan, H. G. Tonikyan, S. H. Minasyan, L. A. Harutyunyan, F. T. Greenaway, S. Williams, R. A. Gray, J. R. J. Sorenson. Inorg. Chim. Acta 328, 1-12 (2002).