Gustaf H. Carlson School of Chemistry

Dr. Mark M. Turnbull

Mark M. Turnbull

Synthetic Chemistry

Professor of Chemistry
Carlson School of Chemistry
Clark University
Worcester, MA 01610-1477

Office: S307, Sackler Sciences Center
Phone: 508-793-7167


Professor Turnbull served as a visiting lecturer at the University of Canterbury, Christchurch, NZ in 1995, and as a visiting professor at the Universitat de Barcelona, Spain in 2001-2002.


Ph.D. Brandeis University, 1987
M.S. University of New Hampshire, 1984
B.S. University of New Hampshire, 1978

Current Research

Our research lies in the preparation of new materials and is focused in two areas.

Molecular Magnetism
Over the last two decades, a new field of research has emerged called molecular magnetism. The guiding principle is to use our understanding of structure, bonding and geometry to control the bulk magnetic properties of a material at the molecular level. This is highly interdisciplinary work and involves teams of collaborating organic and inorganic chemists, theoreticians and condensed physicists (our group works in collaboration with that of Prof. Christopher Landee in the Physics Dept. as well as several groups around the world, including Spain, Germany, Great Britain and New Zealand).

Low-dimensional Antiferromagnets
The copper oxide-based high temperature superconductors have introduced a new era to the field of conducting materials, but the mechanism of their superconductivity is still not well understood. One theory suggests that the mechanism of the electrical superconductivity is relted to the mechanism of magnetic super-exchange in these compounds. We are working to prepare structurally related complexes which have more moderate ordering tempertures as models for these systems and others where the magnetic interactions are not principally propagatged in 3-dimensions. Of special interests are those materials where the magnetic interactions are not strictly one- or two-dimensional in nature, but whose topology may be described as inter-dimensional, such as ladders, honeycombs and rectangles. We have recently succeeded in preparing a large family of the best examples of magnetic ladders known (at right) and experiments are in progress to determine their properties and whether doping the systems will generate superconducting materials as predicted by theory.

Selected Publications

Ludy, S.J.#; Landee, C.P.; Turnbull, M.M.; Wikaira, J.L. J. Coord. Chem. 2011, 64, 134-44. “Synthesis, Structure and Magnetic Behavior of a Pyrazine-bridged Cu(II)/Au(CN)2 Complex”

Walha, S.; Naili, H.; Yahyaoui, S.; Ali, B.F.; Turnbull, M.M.; Mhiri, T.; Bataille, T.  Sol. St. Sci., 2011, 13, 204-8. “Crystal structure, thermal analysis and magnetic properties of the bis(2-amino-5-ammoniopyrinium) hexachloridomanganate(II)”

Hong, T.; Gvasalia, S.N.; Herringer, S.#; Turnbull, M.M.; Landee, C.P.; Regnault, L.-P.; Boehm, M.; Zheludev, A. Phys. Rev. B. 2011, 83, 052401(1-4). “Dynamics of the two-dimensional S=(1/2) dimer system (C5H6N2F)2CuCl4

Edwards, K.*; Herringer, S.N.*; Parent, A.R.*; Provost, M.*; Shortsleeves, K.C.*; Turnbull, M.M.; Dawe, L.N. Inorg. Chim. Acta 2011, 368, 141-51. “Transition Metal Halide Salts of 8-Methylquinolinium:  Crystal Structures of (8-methylquinolinium)2 MX4 • nH2O (M = Cu, Co, Zn; X = Cl, Br; n = 0,1)”

Kühne, H.; Zvyagin, A.A.; Günther, M.; Reyes, A.P.; Kuhns, P.L., Turnbull, M.M.; Landee, C.P.; Klauss, H.-H. Phys. Rev. Rapid Comm. 2011, 83, 100407(R). “Dynamics of a Heisenberg spin chain in the quantum critical regime: NMR experiment versus effective field theory.”

Herringer, S.N.*; Turnbull, M.M.; Landee, C.P.; Wikaira, J.L. Dalton Trans. 2011, 40, 4242-52. “Copper (II) Complexes of 2-halo-3-methylpyridine: Syntheses, Structures, and Magnetic Behavior of Cu(2-X-3-CH3py)2X’2 [X, X’ = chlorine or bromine; py = pyridine]”

Leach, M.T.; Henderson, W.; Wilkins, A.L.; Lane, J.R.; Fortney-Zirker, R.G.; Turnbull, M.M.; Nicholson, B.K. Inorg. Chim. Acta 2011, 375, 228-35. “Platinum(II) phosphonate complexes derived from endo-8-campanylphosphonic acid”

Keith, B.C.#; Landee, C.P.; Valleau, T.*; Turnbull, M.M.; Harrison, N. Phys. Rev. B. 2011, 84, 104442  “Rectangular two-dimensional S=1/2 rectangular Heisenberg antiferromagnets; simulation and experiment”

Keith, B.#; Xiao, F.#; Landee, C.P.; Turnbull, M.M.; Zheludev, A. Polyhedron, 2011, 30, 3006-9. “Random Rung Exchange in the Spin Ladder Cu(quinoxaline)X2 (X = Cl, Br)”

Hajlaoui, F.; Naïli, H.; Yahyaoui, S; Turnbull, M.M.; Mhiri, T.; Bataille, T.  Dalton Trans. 2011, 40, 11613-20. “Synthesis, Characterization and Magnetic Properties of Four New Organically Templated Metal Sulfates: [C5H14N2][MII(H2O)6](SO4)2 (MII = Mn, Fe, Co, Ni)”

Ninios, K.; Hong, T.; Manabe, T.; Hotta, C.; Herringer, S.N.#; Turnbull, M.M.; Landee, C.P.; Takano, Y.; Chan, H.B.  Phys. Rev. Lett., 2012, 108, 097201.1-5.  “Wilson ratio of a Tomonaga-Luttinger liquid in a spin-1/2 Heisenberg Ladder”

Schlueter, J.A.; Park, H.; Halder, G.J.; Armand, W.R.; Dunmars, C.; Chapman, K.W.; Manson, J.L.; Singleton, J.; McDonald, R.; Plonczak, A.; Kang, J.; Lee, C.; Whangbo, M.-H.; Lancaster, T.;  Steele, A.J.; Franke, I.; Wright, J.M.; Blundell, S.J.; Pratt, F.L.; DeGeorge, J.*; Turnbull, M.M.; Landee, C.P. Inorg. Chem.2012, 51, 2121-29. “Importance of Halogen•••Halogen Contacts for the Structural and Magnetic Properties of Cu(pyrazine-N,N′-dioxide)(H2O)2X2 (X = Cl, Br)”

Abdalrahman, M.*; Landee, C.P.; Telfer, S.; Turnbull, M.M.; Wikaira, J.L. Inorg. Chim. Acta, 2012, 389, 66-76.  “Copper(II) halide coordination complexes and salts of 3-halo-2-methylpyridines:  Synthesis, structure and magnetism”

Rademeyer, M.; Turnbull, M.M.; Landee, C.P.; Kunene, M.; Liles, D.C. Sol. St. Sci. 2012, 14, 1106-10.  “Crystal structure and magnetic properties of catena-poly[[bromido[trans (1S,2S)/(1R,2R)-cyclohexane-1,2-diamine copper(II)]-?3-bromido]”

Husain, A.; Turnbull, M.M.; Nami, S.A.A.; Moheman, A.; Siddiqi, K.S. J.Coord. Chem. 2012, 65, 2593-611. “Synthesis, Crystal structure and magnetic properties of single end-to-end azido bridged 1D chain coordination polymers of copper(II)”

Jornet-Somoza, J.; Codina-Castillo, N.; Deumal, M.; Mota, F.; Novoa, J.J.; Butcher, R.T.#; Turnbull, M.M.; Keith, B.#; Landee, C.P.; Wikaira, J.L.  Inorg. Chem. 2012, 51, 6315-25. “Synthesis, structure, magnetic behavior and theoretical analysis of diazine-bridged magnetic ladders: Cu(quinoxoline)X2 and Cu(2,3-dimethylpyrazine)X2 (X = Cl, Br)”

Awwadi, F.F.; Dawe, L.N.; Landee, C.P.; Turnbull, M.M.  J. Coord. Chem. 2012, 65, 3064-74. “Catena-Bis(aqua(3-oxy-2-pyridono)copper(II))µ-pyrazine diperchlorate:  a perchlorate bridged magnetic ladder”

Kuppuswamy, S.;  Bezpalko, M.W.;  Powers, T.M.; Turnbull, M.M.; Foxman,B.M.; Thomas, C.M. Inorg. Chem. 2012, 51, 8225-40. “Utilization of Phosphinoamide Ligands in Homobimetallic Fe and Mn Complexes:  The Effect of Vastly Different Coordination Environments on Metal-Metal Interactions and Magnetic and Redox    Properties”

Datta, A.; Liu, P.-H.; Huang, J.-H.; Garribba, E.; Turnbull, M. ; Machura, B.; Hsu, C.-L.; Chang, W.-T.; Pevec, A. Polyhedron 2012, 44, 77-87. “End-to-end Thiocyanato-Bridged Zig-zag Polymers of CuII, CoII and NiII with a Hydrazone Ligand : EPR, Magnetic Susceptibility and Biological Study”

Henderson, W.; Oliver, A.G.; Turnbull, M.M., Inorg. Chem. Comm. 2013, 27, 142-5. “Iron(III) complexes of the metalloligand [Pt2(µ-S)2(PPh3)4]”

Walha, S.; Naïli, H.; Yahyaoui, S.; Ali, B.F.; Turnbull, M.M.; Mhiri, T; Ng, S.W. J. Supercon. Nov. Mag. 2013, 26, 437-42.  “Three dimensional network polymeric structure of (2-amino-5 ammoniopyridinium)[CuCl4]: Crystal supramolecularity and magnetic properties”

Vela, S.; Deumal, M.; Turnbull, M.M.; Novoa, J.J. Theoretical Chemistry Accounts, 2013, 132, 1-12. “A rigorous theoretical analysis on the magnetics properties of the low dimensional copper(II)-2-X-3-methylpyridine (X = Cl and Br) complexes.”

deGeorge, J.*; Landee, C.P.; Turnbull, M.M. Acta Cryst. E. 2013, E69, o471. “Phenazinium bisulfate monohydrate”

Wikaira, J.L.; Landee, C.P.; Turnbull, M.M.  Acta Cryst E. 2013, E69, m229-30. “Hexaaquacopper(II) tetrafluoroborate tris-1,4-pyrazinedioxide”

Gale, A.*; Landee; C.P.; Turnbull, M.M.; Wikaira, J.L. Polyhedron 2013, 62, 986-91. “Synthesis, Structure, and Magnetism of two tetrahalocuprate salts:  (5-TFAPH)2CuX4 (5-TFAP = 2-amino-5-trifluoromethylpyridine, X = Cl, Br)”

Vela, S.; Deumal, M.; Turnbull, M.M.; Novoa, J.J. Polyhedron 2013, 62, 699-705. “Assigning the dimensionality in low-dimensional materials: a rigorous study of the dimensionality of (2,5-dimethylpyrazine)CuCl2

Wikaira, J.L.; Landee, C.P.; Ludy, S.J.#; Turnbull, M.M. Polyhedron 2013, 62, 770-80.  “Tetrahalocuprate salts of substituted 4-aminopyridines:  Synthesis, Structure    and Magnetic Properties”

Wikaira, J.L.; Landee, C.P.; Turnbull, M.M.  Acta Cryst. 2013, E69, m229-30. “Hexaaquacopper(II) bis(tetrafluoridoborate)–pyrazine-1,4-dioxide (1/3)”

Awwadi,F.F.; Haddad, S.F.; Turnbull, M.M.; Landee, C.P.; Willett, R.D. CrystEngComm 2013, 15, 3111-8. “Copper-halide Bonds as Magnetic Tunnels; Structural, Magnetic and Theoretical Studies of trans-Bis(2,5-dibromopyridine)dihalocopper(II) and trans-Bis(2-bromopyridine)dibromocopper(II)”

Landee, C.P.; Turnbull, M.M. Eur. J. Inorg. Chem. 2013, 2266-85.  “Recent Developments in Low-Dimensional Cu(II) Molecular Magnets” (cover article and research profile, pg. 2250)

Abdalrahman, M.A.*; Awwadi, F.F.; Jameson, G.B.; Landee, C.P.; Saunders, C.G.; Turnbull, M.M.; Wikaira, J.L., CrystEngComm 2013, 15, 4309-20. “Effects of Halogen and Hydrogen Bonding on Defect Disorder: The Ladder That Wasn’t There”

Solomon, B.L.*; Landee, C.P.; Jasinski, J.P.;Turnbull, M.M. Eur. Chem. Bull. 2013, 2, 845-9. “Synthesis, Structure, and Magnetic Behavior of [Cu2(pyrazine)3(CH3O)2] (ClO4)2

Turnbull, M.M.; Bruda, S.#; Wikaira, J.L. Eur. Chem. Bull. 2013, 2, 2038-40. “[(N-(2-pyridylcarboyl)pyridine-2-carbamido)(pyridine-2-carbamide)-copper(II)] nitrate dihydrate”

Vela, S.; Deumal, M.; Turnbull, M.M.; Novoa, J.J. Polyhedron 2013, 64, 163-71. “A theoretical analysis of the magnetic properties of the low dimensional copper(II)-dichloro-(2-Cl-pyrazine)2 molecule-based magnet”

Shortsleeves, K.C.*; Turnbull, M.M.; Seith, C.B.*; Tripodakis, E.N.*; Xiao, F.#; Landee, C.P.;  Dawe, L.N.; Garrett, D.; Diaz de Delgado, G.; Foxman, B.M.  Polyhedron 2013, 64, 110-21. “Crystallographic and Magnetic Studies of the 2-Pyridone/Copper Halide System”

Polson, M.; Turnbull, M.M.; Wikaira, J.L. Acta Cryst. C. 2013, C69, 1152-6. “2-Amino-5-iodopyridinium chloride sesquihydrate and 2-amino-5-iodopyridinium bromide hemihydrate"

Bruda, S.#; Turnbull, M.M.; Wikaira, J.L. Acta Cryst E 2013, E69, m598-9. “[(N-(2-pyridylcarboyl)pyridine2-carboxamido)(azido)(aqua)copper(II)]”

Nye, L.N.*; Turnbull, M.M.; Wikaira, J.L. Acta Cryst C. 2013, C69, 1317-21. “3,4-Dihydroxy-1,6-di(4-methoxyphenyl)-2,4-hexadiene-1,6-dione and catena-(μ-(4-methoxyphenyl-2-hydroxy-4-oxo-2-butenoato)-μ (4-methoxyphenyl- 2-hydroxy-4-oxo-2-butenoic acid) potassium”

Vela, S.; Jornet-Somoza, J.; Turnbull, M.M.; Feyerherm, R.; Novoa, J.J.; Deumal, M. Inorg. Chem. 2013, 52, 12923-32. “The role of pyrazine ligands and perchlorate counterions in the magnetic properties of [Cu(pz)2](ClO4)2

Validov, A.A.; Ozerov, M.; Wosnitza, J.; Zvyagin, S.A.; Turnbull, M.M.; Landee, C.P. Teitel’baum, G.B. J.Phys.-Cond. Matt. 2014, 26, 026003:1-5.  “ESR of coupled spin-1/2 chains: unveiling zig-zag-type interchain correlations”

Forman, R.L.; Landee, C.P.; Wikaira, J.L.; Turnbull, M.M. Eur. Chem. Bull. 2014, 3, 190-4. “Synthesis, structure, and magnetic behavior of [Cu2(2-amino-5-(trifluoromethyl)pyridine)4(OH)2](ClO4)2•(2-amino-5-(trifluoromethyl)pyridine)2”

Awwadi, F.F.; Taher, D.; Haddad, S.F.; Turnbull, M.M. Cryst.Grw.Des. 2014, 14, 1961-71. “The Competition Between Hydrogen and Halogen Bonding Interactions: Theoretical and Crystallographic Studies”

Landee, C.P.; Turnbull, M.M. J. Coord. Chem., 2014, 67, 375-439.  “A gentle introduction to magnetism: units, fields, theory, and experiment”


* Clark Undergraduate Student Co-author
# Clark Graduate Student Co-author