Stickleback Research

at Clark University



Moczek, A.P., Sultan,S., Foster.S., Ledon-Rettig,C., Dworkin,H., Nijhout,F., Abouheif,E., Pfenning,D.V. 2011.The Role of Developmental Plasticity in Evolutionary Innovation. Proc.R.Soc.B2011 278, 2705-2713. Doi:10.1098/rspb.2011.0971 <>


Baker, J.A., J.E. Dewey and S.A. Foster. 2010. Variation in reproductive traits of female Fourspine Stickleback (Apeltes quadracus) in Nova Scotia, Canada. Copeia 2010:437-442.


Wund, M.A., J.A. Baker, B. Clancy, J.L. Golub and S.A. Foster. A test of the 'flexible stem' model of evolution: ancestral plasticity, genetic accommodation, and morphological divergence in the threespine stickleback radiation. American Naturalist, in press.

Foster, S.A., K.A. Shaw, K.L. Robert and J.A. Baker 2008. Benthic, limnetic and oceanic threespine stickleback: Profiles of reproductive behavior. Behaviour 145:485-508.

Baker, J.A., D.C. Heins, S.A. Foster and R.W. King 2008. An overview of life-history variation in female threespine stickleback: Patterns, scales and trait integration. Behaviour 145: 579-602.


Messler, A., M.A. Wund, J.A. Baker and S.A. Foster 2007. The effects of relaxed and reversed selection by predators on the antipredator behavior of the threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus. Ethology 113:953-963.

Sparkes, T.C., V. Rush and S.A. Foster 2007. Energy constraints and carotenoid-based colour in natural populations of threespine stickleback. Ecology of Freshwater Fish doi:10.1111/j.1600-0633.2007.00279.

Shaw, K.A., M.L. Scotti and S.A. Foster. 2007. Ancestral plasticity and the evolutionary diversification of courtship behaviour in threespine stickleback. Animal Behaviour, 73:415-422.

Scotti, M.L. and S.A. Foster. 2007. Phenotypic plasticity and the ecotypic differentiation of aggressive behavior in threespine stickleback. Ethology 113:190-198.


Baker, J. A., W.A. Cresko, S.A. Foster and D.C. Heins. 2005. Life-history differentiation of benthic and limnetic ecotypes in a polytypic population of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Evolutionary Ecology Research 7:121-131.

Heins, D.C., J.A. Baker, G. DeSilva and E.L. Birden. 2005. Clutch characteristics of two populations of nine-spined stickleback from south-central Alaska. Journal of Fish Biology 67:873-878.


Bagamian, K.H., D.C. Heins and J.A. Baker. 2004. Body condition and reproductive capacity of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus) infected with the cestode macroparasite Schistocephalus solidus. Journal of Fish Biology 64:1568-1576.

Foster, S. A. and J.A. Baker. 2004. Evolution in parallel: new insights from a classic system. Trends in Ecology and Evolution, 19, 456-459.

Heins, D.C., J.A. Baker and J.M. Guill. 2004. Seasonal and interannual components of intrapopulation variation in clutch size and egg size of a darter. Ecology of Freshwater Fish 13:1-8.

Heins, D.C., B. Ulinski, J. Johnson and J.A. Baker. 2004 Effect of the cestode macroparasite Schistocephalus pungitii on the reproductive success of ninespine stickleback Pungitius pungitius. Canadian Journal of Zoology 82:1731-1737.

Scott, R.J. 2004. Assortative mating between adjacent populations of threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Ecology of Freshwater Fish 13: 1-7.


Foster, S.A., J.A. Baker and M.A. Bell. 2003. The case for conserving threespine stickleback populations: Protecting an adaptive radiation. Fisheries 28:10-18.

Heins, D.C. and J.A. Baker. 2003. Reduction in egg size in natural populations of threespine stickleback infected with a cestode macroparasite. Journal of Parasitology 89:1-6.

Heins, D.C., J.M. Johnson and J.A. Baker. 2003. Reproductive ecology of the nine-spined stickleback from south-central Alaska. Journal of Fish Biology 63:1-13.

Jones, J.R., M.A. Bell, J.A. Baker and J.P. Koenings. 2003. General limnology of lakes near Cook Inlet, southcentral Alaska. Lake and Reservoir Management 19:141-149.


Baker, J.A. and S.A. Foster. 2002. Phenotypic plasticity for life-history traits in a stream population of the threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Ecology of Freshwater Fish 11:20-29.

Heins, D.C., J.A. Baker and H.C. Martin. 2002. The “crowding effect” in the cestode Schistocephalus solidus: density-dependent effects on plerocercoid size and infectivity. Journal of Parasitology 88:302-307.


Artiss, T. 2001. Structure and function of male genetalia in Libellula, Ladona and Plathemis (Anisoptera: Libellulidae). Odontologica 30:13-27.

Artiss, T., T.R. Schultz, D.A. Polhemus and C. Simon. 2001. Molecular phylogenetic analysis of the dragonfly general Libellula, Ladona and Plathemis (Odonata: Libellulidae) based on mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase I and 16s rRNA sequence data. Molecular Phylogenetic Evolutions 18:348-361.

Luttbeg B., M.C. Towner, A. Wandesforde-Smith, M. Mangel and S.A. Foster. 2001. State-dependent mate assessment and mate selection behavior in female threespine sticklebacks (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Ethology 107:545-558.

Scott, R.J. 2001. Sensory drive and nuptial colour loss in threespine stickleback. Journal of Fish Biology, 59: 1520-1528.


Sillett, K.B., and S.A. Foster. 2000. Ontogenetic niche shifts in two populations of juvenile threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus, that differ in pelvic spine morphology. Oikos 91: 468-476.

Scott, R.J., and S.A. Foster. 2000. Field data do not support a textbook example of convergent character displacement. Proceedings of the Royal Society of London Ser. B. 267:1-6.


Foster, S.A. and J.A Endler. 1999. Introduction and aims. In: The Evolution of Geographic Variation in Behavior: Perspectives on Evolutionary Mechanisms. S.A. Foster and J.A. Endler (eds.) Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Foster, S.A. and J.A Endler. 1999. Thoughts on geographical variation in behavior. In: The Evolution of Geographic Variation in Behavior: Perspectives on Evolutionary Mechanisms. S.A. Foster and J.A. Endler (eds.) Oxford University Press, Oxford.

Foster, S.A. 1999. The geography of behavior: An Evolutionary Perspective. Trends in Ecology and Evolution 44:190-195.

Heins, D.C. and J.A. Baker. 1999. Evaluation of ovum storage techniques for reproductive studies of fishes. Ecology of Freshwater Fish 8:65-69.

Heins, D.C., J.A. Baker and S.S. Singer. 1999. Virulence of the cestode Schistocephalus solidus and reproduction in infected threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus. Canadian Journal of Zoology 77:1967-1974.

Ness, J. and S.A. Foster. 1999. Parasite-associated phenotype modifications in threespine stickleback. Oikos 85:127-134.


Baker, J.A., S.A. Foster, D.C. Heins, M.A. Bell and R.W. King. 1998. Variation in female life-history traits among eight Alaskan populations of threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus, L. (Pisces: Gasterosteidae). Biological Journal of the Linnean Society 63:141-159.

Foster, S.A., R.J. Scott and W.A. Cresko. 1998. Nested biological variation and speciation. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London, B. 353L207-218.

Rodewald, A.D. and S.A. Foster. 1998 Effects of gravidity on habitat use and antipredator behavior in threespine stickleback. Journal of Fish Biology, 52: 973-984.


Artiss, T. 1997. A possible andromorph of Libellula jesseana Williamson (Anisoptera: Libellulidae. Notul. Odontal. 4:137-138.


Brooks, A., J.A. Baker and C.R. Redmond. 1996. Floodplain restoration and riparian zone management. Pages 201-229 in: Brookes, A. and F.D. Shields (eds.), River channel restoration: guiding principles for sustainable projects. John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK.

Cresko, W. and J.A. Baker. 1996. Two morphotypes of lacustrine threespine stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus, in Benka Lake, Alaska. Environmental Biology of Fishes 45:343-350.

Foster, S.A., W.A. Cresko, K.P. Johnson, M.U. Tlusty, and H.E. Willmott. 1996. Patterns of homoplasy in behavioral evolution. Pp. 245-269 in: Homoplasy and the Evolutionary Process. M.J. Sanderson and L. Hufford (eds.). Academic Press, New York.

Foster, S.A. and S.A. Cameron. 1996. Geographic variation in behavior: A phylogenetic framework for comparative studies. Pp. 138-165 in: Phylogenies and the Comparative Method in Animal Behavior (E. Martins, Ed.). Oxford University Press, New York.

Heins, D.C., J.A. Baker and D.J. Tylicki. 1996. Reproductive season, clutch size, and egg size of the rainbow darter, Etheostoma caeruleum, from the Homochitto River, Mississippi, with an evaluation of data from the literature. Copeia 1996(4):1005-1010.

Killgore, K.J. and J.A. Baker. 1996. Patterns of larval fish abundance in a bottomland hardwood wetland. Wetlands 16:288-295.


Baker, J.A., S.A. Foster and M.A. Bell. 1995. Armor morphology and life history in threespine stickleback Gasterosteus aculeatus L. Environmental Biology of Fish 44:225-233.

Foster, S.A. 1995. Understanding the evolution of behaviour in threespine stickleback: the value of geographic variation. Behaviour 132:1107-1129.

Foster, S.A. 1995. Opportunism, adaptation and chance in the design of display behavior. Perspectives in Ethology 11:61-81.

Foster, S.A. and J.A. Baker. 1995. Evolutionary interplay between ecology, morphology and reproductive behavior in threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus L.). Environmental Biology of Fish 44:213-233.

Heins, D.C., J.A. Baker, R.W. King and K. Lahti. 1995. Evaluation of ovum fixation and storage in three-spined stickleback. Journal of Fish Biology 47:923-925.

Willmott, H.E. and S.A. Foster. 1995. The effects of rival male interaction on courtship and parental care in the fourspine stickleback, Apeltes quadracus. Behaviour 132:997-1010.


Bell, M.A. and S.A. Foster. 1994. Introduction to the evolutionary biology of the threespine stickleback. pp. 1-27 In: The Evolutionary Biology of the Threespine Stickleback. M.A. Bell and S.A. Foster (eds.). Oxford University Press.

Baker, J.A. 1994. Life history variation in female threespine stickleback. Pages 144 187 In: Bell, M.A. and S.A. Foster (eds.), Evolutionary biology of the threespine stickleback. Oxford University Press.

Baker, J.A. and S.A. Foster. 1994 Observations on a foraging association between two freshwater fishes. Ecology of Freshwater Fishes, 3: 137-139.

Baker, J.A. and D.C. Heins. 1994. Effect of drying temperature on weight estimates for oocytes and eggs in the darter Etheostoma lynceum. Copeia 1994:821-823.

Baker, J.A. and D.C. Heins. 1994. Reproductive life history of the North American madtom catfish, Noturus hildebrandi (Bailey & Taylor 1950), with a review of data for the genus. Ecology of Freshwater Fish 3:167-175.

Baker, J.A., K.J. Killgore, and S.A. Foster. 1994. Population variation in spawning current speed selection in the blacktail shiner, Cyprinella venusta (Pisces: Cyprinidae). Environmental Biology of Fish 39:357-364.

Foster, S.A. 1994. Inference of evolutionary pattern: diversionary displays of threespine stickleback. Behavioral Ecology 5:114-121.

Foster, S.A. 1994. The evolution of courtship and parental care behavior in threespine stickleback. pp 381-398 in: The Evolutionary Biology of the Threespine Stickleback. M.A. Bell and S.A. Foster (eds.). Oxford University Press

Foster, S.A. and M.A. Bell. 1994. Inference of evolutionary pattern: The value of stickleback-tinted lenses. pp 472-486 in: The Evolutionary Biology of the Threespine Stickleback. M.A. Bell and S.A. Foster (eds.). Oxford University Press.


Heins, D.C. and J.A. Baker. 1993. Clutch production in the darter Etheostoma lynceum Hay and its implications for life history study. Journal of Fish Biology 42:819-829.

Heins, D.C. and J.A. Baker. 1993. Reproductive biology of the brighteye darter, Etheostoma lynceum, from the Homochitto River, Mississippi. Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters 4(1):11-20.


Foster, S.A., J.A. Baker and M.A. Bell. 1992. Phenotypic integration of life history and morphology: an example from three-spined stickleback, Gasterosteus aculeatus L. Journal of Fish Biology 41 (Supplement B): 21-35.

Goldschmidt, T., S.A. Foster and P. Sevenster 1992. Internest distance and sneaking in the three spined stickleback. Animal Behaviour 44:793-795.

Heins, D.C. and J.A. Baker. 1992. Historical and recent influences on reproduction in North American stream fishes. Pages 573 599 In: Mayden, R.L. (ed.), Systematics, historical ecology, and North American freshwater fishes. University of California Press, Berkeley.

Heins, D.C., J.A. Baker and W.P. Dunlap. 1992. Yolk loading in darters and its consequences for study of their life histories. Copeia 1992(2):404 412.


Baker, J.A., K.J. Killgore and R.L. Kasul. 1991. Aquatic habitats and fish communities in the lower Mississippi River. Reviews in Aquatic Sciences 3(4):313 356.

Parrish, J.D., D.C. Heins and J.A. Baker. 1991. Reproductive season, clutch parameters and oocyte size of the johnny darter, Etheostoma nigrum from southwestern Mississippi. American Midland Naturalist 125(2):180 186.


Foster, S.A. 1990. Courting deception in cannibal territory. Natural History. 11/90: 52-61.

Foster, S.A. and S.A. Ploch. 1990. Determinants of variation in antipredator behavior of territorial male threespine stickleback in the wild. Ethology 84:281-294.


Foster, S.A. 1989. The implications of divergence in spatial nesting patterns in the geminate Caribbean and Pacific sergeant major damselfishes. Animal Behavior 37: 465-476.


Heins, D.C. and J.A. Baker. 1988. Egg sizes in fishes: do mature oocytes accurately demonstrate size statistics of ripe ova? Copeia 1988(1):238 240.

Foster, S.A. 1988. Diversionary displays of paternal sticklebacks: defenses against cannibalistic groups. Behavioral Ecology and Sociobiology 22: 335-340.

Foster, S.A., V.B. Garcia, and M.Y. Town. 1988. Cannibalism as a cause of ontogenetic shifts in resource use by fry of the threespine stickleback (Gasterosteus aculeatus). Oecologia 74:577-585


Foster, S.A. 1987a. Acquisition of a defended resource: A benefit of group foraging for the neotropical wrasse, Thalassoma lucasanum. Environmental Biology of Fish 19:215-222.

Foster, S.A. 1987b. Diel and lunar patterns of reproduction in the Caribbean and Pacific sergeant major damselfishes: Abudefduf saxatilis and A. troschelii. Marine Biology 95: 333-343.

Foster, S.A. 1987c. Territoriality of the dusky damselfish: Influence on algal biomass and on the relative impacts of grazing by fishes and Diadema. Oikos 50:153-160.

Foster, S. A. 1987d. The relative impacts of grazing by Caribbean coral reef fishes and Diadema: Effects of habitat and surge. Journal of Experimental Marine Biology and Ecology 105: 1-20.

Heins, D.C. and J.A. Baker. 1987. An analysis of factors associated with intraspecific variation in propagule size of the blacktail shiner, Notropis venustus. Pages 223 231 in W.J. Matthews and D.C. Heins (eds.), Evolutionary and community ecology of North American stream fishes. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.

Ross, S.T., J.A. Baker, and K.E. Clark. 1987. Persistence of fish community structure and microhabitat use in a southeastern U.S. stream. Pages 42 51 in W.J. Matthews and D.C. Heins (eds.), Evolutionary and community ecology of North American stream fishes. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman.


Foster, S.A. 1986. On the adaptive value of large seeds for tropical moist forest trees: A review and synthesis. Botanical Review 52: 260-299.


Baker, J.A. 1985. Report on fish collections within the Ouachita River basin, Arkansas. Arkansas Academy of Science Proceedings 39:19 24.

Foster, S.A. 1985a. Group foraging by a coral reef fish: A mechanism for gaining access to defended resources. Animal Behaviour 33:782-793.

Foster, S.A. 1985b. Size-dependent territory defense by a damselfish as a determinant of resource use by group-foraging surgeonfishes. Oecologia 67: 499-505.

Foster, S.A. 1985c. Wound healing: A possible role of cleaning stations. Copeia 1985(4):875-880.

Foster, S.A. and C.H. Janson. 1985. The relationship between seed size and establishment conditions in tropical woody plants. Ecology 66:773-780.


Ruple, D.L., R.H. McMichael, Jr., and J.A. Baker. 1984. Life history of the gulf darter, Etheostoma swaini (Pisces: Percidae). Environmental Biology of Fishes 11:121 130.


Ross, S.T. and J.A. Baker. 1983. The response of fishes to periodic spring floods in a southeastern stream. American Midland Naturalist 109:1 14.


Robertson, D.R. and S.A. Foster. 1982. Off-reef emigration of young adults of the labrid fish Epibulus insidiator. Copeia, 1982(1):227-229.

Pennington, C.H., J.A. Baker, and M.E. Potter. 1982. Contaminant levels in fishes from Brown's Lake, Mississippi. Journal of the Mississippi Academy of Sciences 27:139 147.


Baker, J.A. and S.T. Ross. 1981. Spatial and temporal resource utilization by southeastern cyprinids. Copeia 1981:178 189.


Baker, J.A. and T. Modde. 1977. Susceptibility to predation of blacktail shiners stained with Bismarck Brown Y. Transactions of the American Fisheries Society 106:334 338.

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